No one seems to agree on cover letters. How much time do you need to spend perfecting them? Do hiring managers even read them? Is it better to just send in your resume and call it a day?
Now, I'm not in HR, but I've been approached by applicants who wondered whether their cover letter would actually be read. My answer is one not many of them wanted to hear: "Sometimes." Sometimes it will be read. Other times, you can get away with just sending in your resume -- like when you network your way into applying for a position.
The truth is, you can't really predict on a case-by-case basis -- and you're better safe than sorry. For the most part, having a cover letter will give you an upper hand in ways your resume doesn't. It allows you to show off your writing skills, provide details that you couldn't fit on your resume, demonstrate your passion, and show your willingness to put in as much time and effort as possible.
But if your cover letter is sloppy, you might as well have not applied at all. Grammatical errors could mean your application is thrown in the trash. Using a generic "one-size-fits-all" cover letter -- especially if you forgot to change the name of the company -- will definitely hurt your chances. So if you take the time to write a cover letter, take special care that it reflects you in the best possible light.
Let's take a look at an example.
Sample Cover Letter
Here's an example of a great cover letter. The numbered sections are explained in more detail below.
The level of formality your header has will depend on the company you apply to. If you're applying to a formal business, it's important to use a formal header to open your cover letter, like in the sample above. Put your address, the date, and the company's address. But if you're applying to a company that isn't as formal, you don't need to include yours and the company's addresses. You can still include the date, though.
Using "To Whom It May Concern" is okay, but you may want to take the time to research the name of the recruiter or hiring manager online. If you do your research and aren't confident you found the right name, then you should definitely use the generic greeting -- but if you are sure, then it shows you put in the effort to find their name and it will catch the recruiter's eye.
If you have the recruiter's name, do you greet them by their full name, or by their courtesy title (i.e. Mr., Ms., or Mrs.)? Similar to the header, it depends on the company's level of formality. If you're applying to a corporate business, you may want to consider using "Mr. Snaper" instead of "Jon Snaper." If you're applying to a start-up or a business with a more casual culture, you can use "Jon Snaper," as shown in the example.
3) Paragraph 1: Introduction
Your opening paragraph should, in 1-3 sentences, state why you're excited to apply and what makes you the perfect candidate. Get right to the point, and don't worry about explaining where you found the posting or who you know at the company. This isn't a place to go into detail about why you're a great candidate -- that's for the second paragraph. Here, simply list a few key reasons in one sentence to set up the rest of your letter. Keep in mind that the recruiter may cross-reference your cover letter with your resume, so make sure the two sync up.
4) Paragraph 2: Why You're a Great Fit for the Job
Next, sell yourself and your experience by choosing one or two concrete examples that show why you're a great fit for the position. What did you do at a previous company that gave you relevant experience? Which projects have you worked on that would benefit the new company? How will your prior experience help this company grow? Stay humble in your explanation of credentials while still showing that you would be an asset to the team. Use this paragraph to show you're genuinely excited and interested in the position.
5) Paragraph 3: Why the Company is a Great Fit for You
While it's certainly important you're a good fit for the job, it's also important that the company is a good fit for you. "A cover letter typically describes why you're great for a company -- but how will you benefit from getting hired?" asks Emily MacIntyre, Senior Marketing Recruiter at HubSpot. "We want to know why our company appeals to you, and how it will be a mutually beneficial working relationship."
In the third paragraph, show you're serious about growing and developing your career at this new company. What impresses and excites you about the company? Is there something that you feel strongly about that aligns with the company's goals? For example, the candidate in the sample letter used this space to show his personal commitment to environmental causes aligns with the company's green initiatives.
6) Strong Closing Paragraph
Don't write off the final few sentences of your cover letter -- it's important to finish strong. Be straightforward about your interest and enthusiasm about the new position without coming off too strong. Tell them you're available to talk about the opportunity at any time and include your phone number and email address. At this point, the ball is (rightly) in the recruiter's court to decide how to follow up.
Last but certainly not least, thank them for their time and consideration.
7) Formal Sign-Off
Use a formal sign-off like "Best," "All the best," or "Sincerely," and finish by typing out your full name. You don't need to sign it with a pen.
5 Cover Letter Tips From the Experts
While the sample from the previous section provides a basic framework for writing your cover letter, there are also several tips you can follow to help get your cover letter to stand out from the crowd.
1) Do your research.
In order to craft a truly compelling cover letter, you need to show that you understand what the company does and what their pain points are. And that usually entails doing more than simply reading a job description.
Start by soaking up all the information you can find on the company's website and blog, and then consider drilling down into the LinkedIn and Twitter accounts of executives and employees you could end up working with. That research will help you fine-tune the messaging of your cover letter.
As author and entrepreneur Jodi Glickman told the Harvard Business Review:
Think about the culture of the organization you’re applying to. If it’s a creative agency, like a design shop, you might take more risks but if it’s a more conservative organization, like a bank, you may hold back."
2) Keep it short.
You might have heard that keeping your cover letter to one page is ideal. But according to Forbes tech journalist Seth Porges, you may want to consider keeping it even shorter than a single page.
As Porges once noted (in appropriately concise fashion):
"Less. Is. More. Three paragraphs, tops. Half a page, tops. Skip lengthy exposition and jump right into something juicy."
3) Don't state the obvious.
One trick for helping you keep your cover letter concise: Avoid wasting real estate on information that the hiring manager already knows -- like the position you are applying for.
As Porges wrote for Forbes:
Never ever, ever use the following phrase: 'My name is ___, and I am applying for the position as ____.' They already know this, and you’ll sound inexperienced."
4) Add some personal branding.
Career coach Evelyn Salvador recommends using personal branding elements -- specifically a slogan, a testimonial, and/or a mission statement -- to help make your cover letter more attention-grabbing. As Salvador told Monster.com:
Each of these elements is optional, but it might just be the thing that makes your cover letter stand out from those of other candidates."
Here's a quick run down on what those three elements are, and examples of what they might look like.
- Slogan: A short summary of the value you'd bring to a company/role (e.g., "Using data to solve the problems of tomorrow.")
- Testimonial: An excerpt from a letter of recommendation, thank-you message from a customer, or other short quote that highlights your past performance (e.g., "[Your name] was prompt, professional, and responsive throughout the entire process. I can't wait to work with her again the future!")
- Mission Statement: Similar to a slogan, but focused more on the philosophy behind why you do what you do, and why you want to accomplish what you want to accomplish (e.g., "The key to customer happiness is creating products that people love. My mission is to produce the most lovable products on the planet.")
5) Don't force humor.
How to Sign a Cover Letter With Signature Examples
What should you include in your signature when you're writing a cover letter to apply for a job? It varies, depending on how you are applying for the position. The format and information included in your signature is different for mailed, uploaded, and emailed cover letter documents.
How to Sign a Cover Letter That's Uploaded or Mailed
If you're uploading your cover letter to a job site, your signature will simply include a closing and your full name.
Place a comma after your close (e.g. Best, or Sincerely yours,) and then put your name on the line below.
When you're sending a written letter, include a closing, your handwritten signature, and your typed full name. Leave several spaces between the close and your typed name. That way, you'll have room for your signature when you print out the letter. Sign using either blue or black ink.
For uploaded or mailed cover letters, you do not need to include as much information as you would in an email message. That's because the heading of your cover letter includes your contact information.
A paper cover letter is a formal business style letter of application which includes a heading, salutation, the body of the letter, closing, and your signature. Review these guidelines for what to include in your letter.
How to Sign an Email Cover Letter
If you are sending your cover letter or inquiry letter by email, end with a polite sign-off followed by your full name.
You do not need to sign a cover letter that is being sent electronically. Write out your full name in the same font as the rest of the letter (no need for italics or a handwriting font).
The formatting here is very similar to an uploaded cover letter. However, emails do not have a header with your phone number or other contact information.
It's a good idea to include these details in your closing paragraph or after your typed signature. This makes it easy for the employer or networking contact to get in touch with you.
You can also include links to online portfolios (if appropriate) or a link to your professional social media account (LinkedIn, Twitter). You don't want to make this section too cluttered, however, so restrict yourself to the most relevant information.
Here's how to set up an email signature, along with more advice on what to include in it (and what to leave off).
Cover Letter Document Signature Examples
Here's how your signature should look:
Closing, (see sample closings)
Handwritten Signature (for mailed letters only)
For example (signed letter):
Janet Dolan (Your Signature)
For example (uploaded letter):
Email Cover Letter Signature Examples
When you are sending email cover letters, it's important to include contact information so the hiring manager can easily view how to contact you. At the least, you should include your name, email address, and phone number. Other information, like your street address, online portfolio, or social media accounts, is considered optional.
Sample Email Signature
Sample Email Signature With Full Address
City, State, Zip
Sample Email Signature With LinkedIn
LinkedIn Profile (Optional)
Sample Email Signature With Twitter
LinkedIn Profile (Optional)
Twitter Account (Optional)
Quick Tip: Don't use your work email address for job searching. Use your personal email account or set up a unique account to use just for your job hunt. There are many free online email services, like Gmail and Yahoo mail, you can use to set up a new email account for your job search. Even though you are using your personal account, your email address should still be professional. Your best bet is some variation on first initial, last name (e.g., firstname.lastname@example.org) or first name, last name (email@example.com).
Here's how to set up an email account just for your job search.
How to Write a Cover Letter
Get information on how to write a cover letter, including what to include in your cover letter, cover letter format, targeted cover letters, and cover letter samples and examples.