The theory of evolution had been around long before Darwin's Origin of Species? What new elements made the Origin of species so important, and why?
Theories of evolution before Darwin, such as those of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin, did not explain how species could evolve without help from an outside guiding force, such as a botanist who killed specific kinds of flowers or a dog breeder who bred for a specific trait. Darwin proposed natural selection. Natural selection is the pressure for species with advantageous traits to survive while those with less advantageous traits died. Darwin said that natural selection explained evolution. The Origin of Species was also important because it was the first time that a strong body of evidence, taken from a wide range of species and environments, had been assembled in support of evolution.
Why were the Galapagos Islands important to the formation of Darwin's theory of evolution?
The Galapagos Islands were important to the formation of Darwin's theory of evolution because they showed that species in isolation tended to evolve in ways that suited their environments. Although Darwin did not immediately comprehend the importance of the different varieties of tortoises and finches that he observed in the island, he later saw that the differences in finch's beaks demonstrated the ability of evolution to fine tune a species to fit the particular demands of an environment.
What impact did Darwin's health have on his life and career?
The cause of Darwin's health problems has remained a mystery. Some argue that he contracted a disease while on the Beagle; others think that his physical symptoms were the result of high levels of stress and emotional repression. In any case, the effect of his illness was to isolate him from society at Down House. He continued to see people, and his correspondence was enormous, but he spent most of his time alone or in the company of Emma. This solitude meant that he was distant from the controversies and politics of science, and was able to focus on his own theories and observations without the pressures of academic fighting or the responsibilities of teaching or mentoring. This isolation helped him develop his theory of evolution, but it may also have helped delay the time at which he finally announced it to the scientific community and the public.
Why was there some controversy over whether Darwin should be buried at Westminster Abbey?
What impact, if any, do you think Darwin's schooling as a doctor and clergyman had on his ultimate career as a naturalist? On his theory of evolution?
What impact did Darwin's self-imposed isolation at the Down House have on his career as a scientist?
Why was Jenkin's criticism of evolution by natural selection so damaging to Darwin? What do we know now that makes this criticism less relevant?
Who were Darwin's mentors during his Edinburgh and Cambridge years, and how did they contribute to his development as a naturalist?
Discuss the impact of wealth on Darwin's success as a scientist. How do you think his father's money affected his ability to do science? Has the role of personal wealth in science changed today?
Charles Darwin 1809-1882
Generally regarded as the most prominent of the nineteenth-century evolutionary theorists, Charles Darwin is primarily known for his On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, the publication of which in 1859 ushered in a new era of naturalistic thinking that was to influence not only the field of biological science, but also the disciplines of art, literature, philosophy, and theology. In the work Darwin identified genetic mutation and natural selection as the mechanisms that controlled the development of species. His theory introduced the concept of ever-present competitive struggle in nature, thereby decentering the commonly held Romantic view of nature as a benign, even benevolent force, and pushed the role of God to the margins of human existence on earth. Although one of many contributors to the field of evolutionary biology, Darwin is commonly associated with the popular acceptance of evolutionary theory, and his Origin is believed to be the impetus for an intellectual revolution as philosophers, social scientists, and writers began to explore the far-reaching implications of his naturalistic theory, which posed a serious challenge to the orthodoxy of Victorian religion, science, and philosophy.
Darwin was born on 12 February 1809 in Shrewsbury, England. His grandfather was the noted physician, botanist, and poet, Erasmus Darwin, who had been a popularizer of evolutionary biology in the late eighteenth century. Darwin shared his grandfather's love of science and at an early age demonstrated an interest in plants, animals, and the natural world. His schooling in Shrewsbury followed by three years of medical study at Edinburgh University under his father's insistence, however, offered him little interest. Seeing that he was dissatisfied, his father sent him to Christ's College, Cambridge in 1828. While there, Darwin's aptitude for scientific exploration caught the attention of his professor and friend John Henslow. With Henslow's encouragement Darwin began to study geology and later undertook a voyage to South America as a naturalist aboard the H. M. S. Beagle (despite his father's objections) in 1831. The journey lasted five years, taking Darwin to the Andes, as well as to Tierra del Fuego at the southern tip of the continent, and to the Galapagos archipelago. The trip culminated in Darwin's publication of the Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited by H. M. S. Beagle (1839). By this time, and largely in response to geological and biological evidence he had accumulated in South America, Darwin was formulating his theory of natural selection, although it was not to appear in print until 1859, with the publication of On the Origin of Species. The work stirred instant controversy and made Darwin one of the most recognizable figures in Victorian England. Over the years, in response to strident criticism, Darwin prepared five revised editions of the book, and meanwhile published several monographs on botany and zoology. In 1871, his Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, another work tied to his theory of evolutionary biology appeared. Descent likewise caused an uproar among critics, but Darwin, highly reserved for most of his life, responded in part by resuming his studies of plants and animals outside a purely evolutionary context. His last book published during his lifetime, TheFormation of Vegetable Mould, through the Action of Worms, with Observations on Their Habits (1881), appeared in the year before his death at the age of seventy-three.
Darwin wrote several books on a range of scientific topics, including botany, zoology, and geology. Among his earliest works, the Journal of Researches is as much a travelogue as a book on science, and captures his responses to the beauty of the Brazilian rainforest and cultural observations of the natives at Tierra del Fuego. This work differs from Darwin's purely scientific writings in that it evinces his more personal and intimate style, a feature also found in his two most well-known books, On the Origin of Species and The Descent of Man. In the Origin Darwin argued that environmental factors acting upon random genetic mutations produce changes in species by allowing those individuals better adapted for survival in a given environment to thrive and reproduce in greater numbers than other members of the same species. This process he termed "descent with modification," which, he maintained, produced large-scale changes in species only over vast periods of time. The revolutionary implications of the theory were further elucidated in Descent, wherein Darwin applied the principles of evolution specifically to human beings and thereby explicitly contradicted widely-held religious explanations of human origins by observing that they shared a common origin with apes and monkeys, and ultimately with even the simplest forms of life.
By introducing the element of chance into his model of evolution, and thereby supplanting divine intervention as the primary force in the creation of life, Darwin had posed a direct challenge to the prevailing religious and moral constructs of his time and provoked a furious response from many quarters. In addition to objections to the essence of Darwin's theory and its implications for religion, many of his contemporaries in the scientific community found flaws in his argument based on the lack of evidence that Darwin was able to produce in order to substantiate his claims. Darwin engaged these oppositions by refining his theory over time, until it gradually gained scientific and popular acceptance. By the late twentieth century, Darwin's theory, with modifications derived from more than a century of scientific research, had become a cornerstone of modern biology and geology. No longer the object of the same heated controversy that they were in the nineteenth century, Darwin's writings have most recently been studied in terms of the author's rhetorical strategies and use of language (especially metaphor), and have been largely investigated for their enormous influence on the currents of intellectual history.