Are Essay Titles Underlined Or Quoted Companies

abbreviations

When a civil or military title is used before a last name, it should be spelled out. With full names, the title should be abbreviated. Do not use title on second reference, except in quoted material.

Gen. Tommy Franks

Sen. Charles Schumer, D-NY (or describe party affiliation in context)

Gen. Tommy Franks is leading the mission. Franks described the situation as "tense," but his aide explained, "If there is a man for this task, it's General Franks."

Abbreviate and capitalize Co. and Corp. and Inc. and Ltd., and do not precede with a comma. These abbreviations are not necessary when the company name is familiar and the context is clear.

academic degrees

University style recommends that in most instances, a person's credentials can and should be noted within the context of the publication, typically close to the first appearance of the person's name.

Jennifer Johnson, a cardiothoracic surgeon at Strong Memorial Hospital, performed the procedure.

Arnold Smith, a professor of pediatrics, met the family in the child's room.

Cynthia Jones, who holds a doctorate in toxicology, read the results.

History professor Don James and his team are studying the origins of black holes.

On subsequent references, people should be referred to by their surnames only without an honorific title. (Phrases such as "Dr. Jones" or "Professor Smith" should be limited to material directly quoted from a speaker or from another source.)

When the listing of academic credentials with a person's name is standard practice (for example, in official bulletins of the University), the abbreviations for the credentials should be listed after the name and be set off by commas.

Department of Philosophy

John Jones, Ph.D., Duke University

Sarah Smith, M.Phil., Cambridge University

Plurals of academic degrees do not take an apostrophe.

B.A.s, B.S.s, Ph.D.s

Bachelor of ArtsB.A.
Bachelor of MusicB.M.
Bachelor of ScienceB.S.
Master of ArtsM.A.
Master of Arts in TeachingM.A.T.
Master of Public HealthM.P.H
Master of ScienceM.S.
Master of Business AdministrationM.B.A.
Master of Science in NursingM.S.N.
Master of MusicM.M.
Medical DoctorM.D.
Doctor of Dental SurgeryD.D.S.
Doctor of PhilosophyPh.D.
Doctor of Musical ArtsD.M.A.
Doctor of EducationEd.D.
Doctor of PharmacyD.Pharm.
administrative titles

Use lowercase unless the title precedes the name. See the organizational charts for official administrative titles.

Jackson, president of the University

President Jackson

Ron Dow, dean of River Campus libraries

Dean Ron Dow

Board of Trustees

Capitalize the complete, formal name; lowercase otherwise.

The Board of Trustees will meet.

The trustees will meet.

The board will meet.

Capitalize trustee when it appears before a name.

Mary Brown, trustee since 1994

Trustee Mary Brown

book titles

Use italics for all book titles.

See publications.

capitalization

Faculty and administrative titles are capitalized when the full title precedes the name; lowercase otherwise.

Professor of History William Jones

Charles Phelps is our ninth provost.

Provost Charles Phelps announced the initiative.

chair

For internal offices, use chair and not chairman.

Jack Frost, chair of the English department, will speak to the group.

EXCEPTION: Recent chairs of the Board of Trustees have usually preferred to be called chairmen (even the women). Check this for each use.

chairman, chairwoman, chairperson

For external offices, use chairman, chairwoman, or chairperson given the preference of the office holder.

The chairman of Xerox will speak.

Capitalize before a name as a title; lowercase otherwise.

We asked Chairman Robert Dempsey of CIP to address the class.

chapter titles

Use roman type in quotation marks. See publications.

company names

Abbreviate and capitalize Co. and Corp. and Inc. and Ltd. and L.L.P, and do not precede with a commas. These abbreviations are not necessary when the company name is familiar and the context is clear.

The panel will be led by Xerox chairman Anne Mulchahy.

Maintain odd capitalizations and punctuations. But when a name with a lowercase first letter begins a sentence, capitalize the first letter.

eBay, Yahoo!

EBay's initial public offering was one of the most successful of the dot-com era.

compositions, musical

See musical compositions

computer programs, names of

Capitalize the principal words in the names of computer programs. Do not use italics or quotation marks. Use the company's conventions for spelling.

Microsoft Word, PowerPoint

But when a name with a lowercase first letter begins a sentence, capitalize the first letter.

IMovie software is now available in all versions of Mac OS.

dean

Use lowercase unless the title precedes the name.

Ron Dow, dean of River Campus libraries

Dean Ron Dow

diseases

Lowercase, unless the disease name contains a proper name that would otherwise be capitalized.

lung cancer

non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Alzheimer's disease

dissertations

Use roman type in quotation marks for dissertation titles.


See publications.

Dr.

See academic degrees.

Ed.D.

See academic degrees.

endowed chairs

Names of endowed chairs are always capitalized, whether accompanied by a personal name or not.

Mary Wellman, Alfred R. Warren Distinguished Service Professor

The Burt Wolbach Professor of Pathology will teach this ongoing seminar.

exhibitions, titles of

Use italics for the titles of art exhibitions.

The Dimensions in Pop exhibition will run through March.

Exhibition, not exhibit, is the preferred term for a public showing of art and other creative works.

faculty

Faculty titles are lowercase unless the title precedes a name.

Jones, professor of history

Professor of History Jones

On subsequent references, faculty should be referred to by their surnames only without an honorific title. (Phrases such as "Dr. Jones" or "Professor Smith" should be limited to material directly quoted from a speaker or from another source.)

Do not use the abbreviation prof. when referring to faculty.

There are several ranks of faculty (assistant, associate, professor, instructor) and it is important to note that these should not be used interchangeably.

Names of endowed chairs are always capitalized, whether accompanied by a personal name or not.

Mary Wellman, Alfred R. Warren Distinguished Service Professor

The Burt Wolbach Professor of Pathology will teach this ongoing seminar.

films

Titles of films should be in italics.

Gone with the Wind is still my favorite movie.

geographic terms

Capitalize places, real or imaginary, with special names.

Scottish Highlands; Finger Lakes; Gotham City

honorific titles

Use the honorifics Miss, Mr., Mrs., and Ms. only in quotes. When it is necessary to distinguish family members from one another, use first names rather than honorifics.

The Smiths agreed that John would support the family while Jane went to graduate school.

Inc.

Abbreviate and capitalize; do not set off with commas. This abbreviation is not necessary when the company name is familiar and the context is clear.

initials

When a person uses initials for their first name, the initials are followed by periods and a space.

H. L. Mencken

W. E. B. DuBois

italics

The following types of titles should be in italics:

newspapersbooks
magazinesmovies
pamphletsoperas
proceedings and collectionsoratorios
periodicalsmusical compositions (Individual pop songs are NOT in italics. Use roman type in quotation marks.)
poemsplays
TV series (Individual episodes, single programs are NOT in italics. Use roman type in quotation marks.)art exhibitions
ships, spacecraft, aircraft
(but not the abbreviations: SS, USS, HMS, etc.)
journals

Use italics for journal titles. Use roman type in quotation marks for individual journal article titles.

Jr.

Do not set off with commas.

Sammy Davis Jr.

lectures

Use roman type in quotation marks for titles of lectures or presentations.

M.A., M.S., M.M., M.B.A., M.A.T., M.P.H., M.S.E., M.S.N.

See academic degrees.

M.D.

See academic degrees.

magazines

Use italics for the names of magazines. Capitalize and italicize "magazine" only when it is part of the official name of the publication.

PC Magazine, Time magazine

military titles

When a civil or military title is used before a last name, it should be spelled out. With full names, the title should be abbreviated. Do not use title on second reference, except in quoted material.

Gen. Tommy Franks

Gen. Tommy Franks is leading the mission. Franks described the situation as "tense," but his aide explained, "If there is a man for this task, it's General Franks."

movies

Use italics for the titles of movies.

Gone with the Wind is still my favorite movie.

Mr., Mrs., Ms., Miss

See honorific titles.

musical compositions

Use italics for most musical composition titles. Individual pop song titles are set in roman type with quotation marks.

The quartet played Canzona per Sonare No. 4 for the graduate procession.

The group had their first top 10 hit with "Do You Believe in Magic?".

named chairs

See endowed chairs.

newsletters

Use italics for the names of newsletters.

operas

Use italics for opera titles.

La Bohème

paintings

Titles of all works of art (paintings, drawings, photographs, statues) should be set in roman type with quotation marks.

Edvard Munch's masterpiece "The Scream" was stolen from a museum.

pamphlets

Use italics for pamphlet titles.

periodicals

Use italics for titles of all periodicals and journals.

See publications.

Ph.D.

See academic degrees.

place names

See geographic terms.

plays

Use italics for titles of plays.

We saw Much Ado About Nothing at the Shakespeare Festival.

poems

Use italics for titles of poems.

Edgar Allen Poe's Annabel Lee features haunting imagery.

president

Capitalize as part of a full official name, or when used as a title before a name; lowercase otherwise.

Office of the President; President Thomas H. Jackson

Thomas H. Jackson is the University's ninth president.

professor

See faculty.

provost

Capitalize as part of a full official name, or when used as a title before a name; lowercase otherwise.

Office of the Provost

Thomas LeBlanc, vice provost

Charles Phelps is the University's ninth provost.

publications

The following types of publication titles should be in italics:

newspapersbooks
magazinesmovies
pamphletsoperas
proceedings and collectionsoratorios
periodicalsmusical compositions
poemsplays
TV seriesart exhibitions
ships, spacecraft, aircraft
(but not the abbreviations: SS, USS, HMS, etc.)

Titles of the following publications should be roman type in quotation marks:

features (newspapers)manuscripts in collection
chapter titleslectures and papers
short storiesepisodes of TV and radio programs
essaysindividual pop songs
articlesshort compositions
dissertations and thesesworks of art

In publication titles, all words are capitalized except articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and, but, or), and prepositions (of, in, on, etc.). The to in infinitives is also lowercase.

Death of a Salesman

"Midnight Train to Georgia"

quotation marks

Titles of the following publications should be roman type in quotation marks:

features (newspapers)manuscripts in collection
chapter titleslectures and papers
short storiesepisodes of TV and radio programs
essaysindividual pop songs
articlesshort compositions
dissertations and thesesworks of art
scholarly papers

Use roman type in quotation marks.

See publications.

scholarly journals

See journals.

scientific names

Capitalize the genus name, lowercase the species name, and italicize both.

Home sapiens; Canis lupus

English derivations and nontechnical uses recognized by the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary may be set in roman type, lowercase.

amoebas

ships

Names of ships are in italics, but not the abbreviations: SS, USS, HMS, etc.

The president landed on the deck of the USS Abraham Lincoln.

software, names of

See computer programs

song titles

See musical compositions.

spacecraft

Names of spacecraft are in italics.

A team of scientist will lead the investigation into the Columbia disaster.

statues

Titles of all works of art (paintings, drawings, photographs, statues) should be in roman type with quotation marks.

television

Names of television series are in italics.

Friends; Seinfeld

Use roman type in quotation marks for individual episode titles and individual programs.

My favorite Friends episode is "The One with Phoebe's Husband."

Professor John Allen's work was featured on the PBS special "American History Revisted."

titles

See administrative titles, publications.

trustees

Capitalize trustee when it appears before a name.

Mary Brown, trustee since 1994

Trustee Mary Brown

See Board of Trustees

vice president

Capitalize as part of a full official name, or when used as a title before a name; lowercase otherwise.

Office of the Vice President

Vice President and General Secretary Paul Burgett

He was an interim vice president at Brown University.

vice provost

Capitalize as part of a full official name, or when used as a title before a name; lowercase otherwise.

Office of the Vice Provost

Vice Provost and and Chief Information Officer Mely Tynan

The vice provost will address the convention.

webmaster

One word, lowercase. Refers to someone who is responsible for creating and maintaining a Web site.

office webmaster Jane Smith

Send an e-mail to the webmaster about that broken link.

works of art

Titles of all works of art (paintings, drawings, photographs, statues) should be in roman type with quotation marks.

See publications.

Italics vs. Quotation Marks


Up until a few decades ago, writers had two choices: write in longhand or use a typewriter. Typewriters had one font. The characters were one size only. If you wanted to cut and paste, you needed scissors and adhesive tape.

Writing in italics was all but impossible, except for professional printing companies.

Thanks to today’s computer keyboards, we now have access to italics. So we need a sensible plan for when to use them and when to use quotation marks. Here is a formula we recommend: Put the title of an entire composition in italics. Put the title of a short work—one that is or could be part of a larger undertaking—in quotation marks.

By “composition” we mean a creative, journalistic, or scholarly enterprise that is whole, complex, a thing unto itself. This includes books, movies, plays, TV shows, newspapers, magazines, websites, music albums, operas, musical theater, paintings, sculptures, and other works of art.

The following sentence illustrates the principle: Richard Burton performed the song “Camelot” in the 1960 Broadway musical Camelot. Although the word is the same, “Camelot” the song takes quotation marks because it’s part of a larger work—namely, a full-length show called Camelot.

Italics are also widely used with names of ships, trains, and planes, e.g., the Titanic, the 20th Century Limited,the Spirit of St. Louis. (Note: with ships, do not italicize prefixes such as USS or HMS.)

Quotation marks are customary for components, such as chapter titles in a book, individual episodes of a TV series, songs on a music album, and titles of articles or essays in print or online.

Titles of plays, long and short, are generally italicized. Titles of poems and shorter works of fiction are generally in quotation marks. Long poems, short films, and the extended stories known as “novellas” are a gray area; some people italicize the titles, others put them in quotation marks.

You won’t go wrong with this policy: For a full-blown composition, put the title in italics. For something smaller and less ambitious, e.g., a short story as opposed to a sprawling novel, put the title in quotation marks. That’s the long and the short of it.

 

Pop quiz
Place italics and quotation marks where they should go.

1. Elvis Presley sang Love Me Tender in the movie Love Me Tender.
2. Chapter 4 of Beautiful Ruins is called The Smile of Heaven.
3. Who sang God Save the Queen on the HMS Bounty?

 

Pop quiz answers
1. Elvis Presley sang “Love Me Tender” in the movie Love Me Tender.
2. Chapter 4 of Beautiful Ruins is called “The Smile of Heaven.”
3. Who sang “God Save the Queen” on the HMS Bounty? (no points if you italicized HMS)

Posted on Monday, June 16, 2014, at 10:39 pm

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