Theses/Dissertations from 2017
Supporting Conflict Resolution in an Early Childhood Montessori Environment, Megan C. Andrews
Small Group Math Instruction in the Middle School Classroom, Jessica Balt
Small Group Math Instruction in the Middle School Classroom, Jessica Balt
Using Mindfulness to Self-Regulate in the Upper Elementary Classroom, Ashleigh L. Bartz
The Impact of Implementing Core Curriculum in an Outdoor Classroom on Primary-Aged Students’ Academic Achievement, Meghan Best, Claire Dickinson, Courtney Hugstad-Vaa Leer, and Molly Kalina
The Affects of Nature Based Learning on Children’s Eco-centric Attitudes, Nicolette A. Bidell
The Behavioral Effects of Learning Outdoors, Shannon Bjorge, Tracy Hannah, Peggy Rekstad, and Tara Pauly
The Effect of Student-Led Conferencing at School and at Home on Goal-Setting, Goal-Fulfillment, Effort, Achievement, Intrinsic Motivation, and Satisfaction for Montessori Lower Elementary 3rd Year Students., Timothy David Blake Schwartz
Movement Interventions for Appropriate and Coordinated Movement, Brianna N. Blasberg
Storytelling and Emotional Response to Conflict, Angela K. Boris
The Effects of Parent-Teacher Communication using Digital Tools in Early Elementary and Middle School Classrooms, Stephanie Bosch, NaTeal Bosch, Emily Takekawa, Tanya Walther, Aleksandra Rieland, Sarah Hochhalter, and Kylie Cline
Will the YouCubed Math Program Improve Upper Elementary Students’ Mathematical Mindset?, Nancy A. Bradtmiller
The Effects of Music and Visual Cues on Transition Time in a Multi-aged 3-5 Year Old Montessori Classroom, Jessica S. Brock
The Effects of Using Computer and iPad Story-Writing Applications for Creative Writing with Kinder Year Students in a Montessori Early Childhood Program, Ruth Ann Christensen
The Impact Of Creating A Positive Culture For Feedback Within The Secondary Career & Technical Education Classroom, Jennifer Denault, Kristine Hintz, and Kelsey Thielges
The Effects of Pre-teaching Vocabulary, Along with Peer Collaboration, on Student Comprehension of Social Studies Texts at St. Cloud Tech High School, Molly Denne
Goal Setting and Choice on Student Motivation, Donna K. Dodge
"Effects of Front-loading Vocabulary for English as a Second Language Learners, Mandy L. Downs
The Effects of Collaboration on Teacher Empowerment, Brittany Kay Feinauer
The Effects of Technology on ELL Students Writing Fluency, Aristea Goundouvas
Grace and Courtesy in Living with Conflict in the Montessori Children’s House, Katie J. Gregoire
The Importance of Student Talk and Strategies for Promoting Classroom Conversations, Danelle Imbertson
Montessori Parent Education: An Action Research Report, Sarah C. Irving
Effects of Mentorship on Teacher Classroom Preparedness at the Secondary Level, Kent Janikula
Does storytelling affect story writing in a Lower Elementary classroom?, Jennifer N. Johnson
Effects of Grading on Student Learning and Alternative Assessment Strategies, Roxanna M. Krawczyk
Building Peer Independence among Children, Sienna D. Kuhn
The Effects of Montessori’s “Walking on the Line” Activity on Student Engagement and Concentration, Emily S. Leutgeb
How Acts of Kindness Facilitate Prosocial Behaviors in an Early Childhood Montessori Classroom, April L. Malley
Choice and Growth Mindset, Neysa B. Matt
Practicing Freedom: effects of personal anti-racist engagement on a Montessori educator's experience, Maggie McCaffrey
Supporting Phonemic Awareness in a Montessori Children’s House, Molly G. McDermott
Supporting Narrative Writing Proficiency and Engagement in a Montessori Upper Elementary Classroom through the Writing Workshop Model and 6+1 Traits of Writing, Kirstin A. Nordhaus
Discovery Education Techbook Use as a Montessori Science Resource, Michelle S. Oliver
Effects of the Remind App on Parent-Teacher Communication at a Mixed-Income Middle School, Allison Opp and Kelsey Nisbet
The Impact of Computer-Generated Feedback on Student Perceptions of Revision Process, Elsie K. Peterson
Incorporation of Blogging in a Middle School Spanish Classroom, Teresa Petrin
The Effect of Background Baroque Music on Work Accomplishment and Student Concentration on Days of Rapid Weather Changes., Dayani A. Pieri
Best Practices on Teaching Letter-Sound and Nonsense Word Fluency, Kirsten Rossum and Jessica Bosma
The Effect of Parent Nights on Parents’ Involvement in Homework Support for Children, Samantha Thelemann
Anti-Bias Work on Self-Identity in a Primary Montessori Classroom, Lauren A. Tift
The Effects of Calming and Cardiovascular Movement Breaks on Mathematical Fact Fluency, Ross Tollgaard and Jennifer Cuchna
The Effect of Handwriting Without Tears on Montessori Four-year-olds' Handwriting Ability, Shelley B. Valdez
Effect of Self-Regulatory Behaviors on Task Completion, Leslie M. Wertz
The Effects of IXL Practice on Geometry and Fraction Achievement, Amanda Wood and Amy Hudspith
Aerobic Exercise and its Effect on Students’ Readiness to Learn, Shanan K. Zollinger
Theses/Dissertations from 2016
Effects of Peace Education and Grace and Courtesy Education on Social Problem-Solving Skills and Social Awareness, Anna Aarre
The Effects of Reviewing a School’s Mission and Vision on Teacher Stress, Erica J. Adams
Filling the Gap: Phonological Awareness Activities for a Montessori Kindergarten, Shauna A. Aranas
Cooperative Activities to Reduce Aggression in Young Children, Kristin R. Beardsly Schoenherr
Grammar Instructional Strategies and Application, Brandon Becker and Jacob Westman
Developing Fluent First-Grade Readers Using Repeated Readings, Gina Bernhagen, Angela Fischer, and Jana Job
The Effects of Mindfulness on Students’ Attention, Rose Bringus
T he Effects of Work Journals, Portfolios, and Cosmic Education on Intrinsic Motivation in an Upper Elementary Montessori Environment, Heather R. Brown
Valorization of the Adolescent Personality, Maribeth Brown
The Effects of Reading Fluency in the Elementary Montessori Classroom, Melissa R. Bullerman and Ashley M. Godinez
Peer Tutoring and Cooperative Groups in the Dual Language Classroom, Cristina I. Celis
The Effects of Purposeful Work, Structured Play, and Leadership Meetings on Aggressive and Destructive Behaviors, Hannah R. Cohen
Mindfulness-Based Practice in an Elementary Classroom, Lauren M. Coiner
The Effects of Social Stories on the Problem Solving Skills of Preschoolers, Sara Cramer
Transition Strategies in Early Childhood Settings, Crystal P. Cunningham(Black)
Finding Better Ways: Exploring techniques to support Native American and Low-income Students in a Middle School, Wade Curren, Julie Curren, Caitlin Draper, and Ben Schiermeister
Increasing Number Sense through Mathematical Discourse in the Primary Classroom, Julie Danielowski
Implementation of Self-regulation and Conflict Resolution Strategies through Conscious Discipline in an Early Childhood Classroom, Alyssa F. Dapolito
The Effects of Character Education on Social-Emotional Behavior, Diane M. Dodds
Parent Communication and Earthquake Safety, Damir Dzafic
Work Conferences and Student Engagement, Hannah K. Ebner
Peer Teaching and Social Interaction, Jacqueline A. Edman and Elsabet J. Roth
Helping Third-Grade Students with Task Management in a Montessori Classroom, Jessica H. Fabel
Increasing Student Learning through Arts Integration, Codi Feland, Kylie Petrik, and Jacob Larson
Mindfulness Intervention: Usefulness In Elementary Classrooms In Regards To Transitions And Collaboration, Jessie M. Filkins
The Effects of Motivational Strategies to Increase Teachers’ Commitment and Enthusiasm, Donna A. Fiumara
The Effects of Technology on Students’ Retention of Letters and Sounds, Amanda Garcia
Close Reading Strategies for Difficult Text: The Effects on Comprehension and Analysis at the Secondary Level, Kimberly Goblirsch
The Effects of Purposeful Physical Activity on Student Concentration in a Montessori Children’s House, Sheena M. Goerg
Engaging All Students: Strategies to Promote Meaningful Learning and Increase Academic Performance, Heidi Haagenson and Casandra Schlangen
Fostering Self-Sufficiency through Problem-Solving, Elizabeth G. Hamilton
Grace in the Face of Conflict: Can Grace and Courtesy and Peace Curriculum Lessons create a Peaceful Classroom?, Baer A. Hanusz-Rajkowski
Gender and Collaborative Writing, Anna F. Hertzog
Effective Strategies for Increasing Basic Math Fact Fluency, Laura Hoelscher
Music, Community, and Cooperation in a Lower Elementary Classroom, Heidi S. James
The Effects of a Collaborative Team on Early Intervention in a Preschool, Tiffany L. James
The Effect of Creativity in Nature, Jackie M. Ji
Using Self-Monitoring to Increase Self-Regulation in Young Children, LaToya T. Jones
Implementing Technology in the Primary Montessori Classroom, Mitzi R. Jones
Vocabulary Instruction and Student Participation and Retention, Jenny A. Kading and Lisa J. Zuther
The Effects of Inquiry Based Practices on Students Problem Solving Competence, Antonio Kuklok
Project-Based Learning’s Effect on Students’ Understanding and Usage of the Engineering Design Process, Allison Larsen
Increasing Motivation to Improve Reading Comprehension, Katelyn Larson, Kelsey Ledger, and Ashley Mastel
The Relationship Between Parental Involvement and Increasing First Grade Fluency Scores, McKenzie Larson and Kelly Ogren
Beneficial Effects of Practical Life Activities and Normalization, Leah Linebarger
Grammar & Writing: Pedagogy Behind Student Achievement, Cheryl M. Louis
Using Reader’s Theater During Small Group Reading Instruction to Increase Prosody Within a Second Grade Classroom of Title I, Tier II Students, Amanda Mahlum and Stacey Knudson
Student Involvement in Gardens and Healthier Food Choices, Brittany Masters
Purposeful Movement in an Early Childhood Classroom, Dana H. McCabe
The Effects of Sign Language on Second Language Acquisition, Itzel Mejia-Menendez
Using Technology to Aid in the Differentiation of Mathematics in a Sixth Grade Classroom, Abigail Morales
The Effects of Daily Art Activities on Attention in Elementary Students An Action Research Report By Marjan, Marjan Oghabi
The Effects of Meditative Activities for Primary-Aged Children, Vanessa I. Padua-Evans
A Blended Learning Approach to Increasing Student Achievement in a Sixth Grade Mathematics Classroom Using Flipped Classroom with Tiered Activities, Krystal Peterson
Sample Action Research courtesy of Sir Kenneth D. Hernandez,CAR-PhD. (Admin TeacherPH Facebook Group)
This is my promised Action Research by one of the teachers at Victoria Reyes Elementary School. Notice that it was conducted only for a week and the Statistics used are very simple yet the interpretation is meaty.
Victoria Reyes Elementary School
An Action Research on the Effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction In Teaching English for Grade Four Classes
Mary Joy V. Olicia
Like Science and Math, English is a difficult but an important subject because the curriculum considers it as a tool subject needed to understand the different content subjects. Basically, it is concerned with developing competencies in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing. Speaking includes skills in using the language expressions and grammatical structures correctly in oral communication while writing skill includes readiness skills, mechanics in guided writing, functional and creative writing (K to 12 Curriculum Guide for Grade 4).
The K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum aims to help learners understand that English language is involved in the dynamic social process which responds to and reflects changing social conditions. It is also inextricably involved with values, beliefs and ways of thinking about the person and the world people dwell. The curriculum aims that pupils are given an opportunity to build upon their prior knowledge while utilizing their own skills, interests, styles, and talents.
However, teachers find difficulties in teaching different kinds of pupils with different intellectual capacities, talent or skills, interest, and learning styles especially in heterogeneous groupings of pupils. This situation calls for teachers to create lessons for all pupils based upon their readiness, interests, and background knowledge. Anderson (2007) noted that it is imperative not to exclude any child in a classroom, so a differentiated learning environment must be provided by a teacher.
Differentiated instruction is based on the concept that the teacher is a facilitator of information, while students take the primary role of expanding their knowledge by making sense of their ability to learn differently (Robinson, Maldonado, & Whaley, 2014).
Wilson (2009) argued that differentiated instruction is the development of the simple to the complex tasks, and a difference between individuals that are otherwise similar in certain respects such as age or grade are given consideration. Additionally, Butt and Kusar (2010) stated that it is an approach to planning, so that one lesson may be taught to the entire class while meeting the individual needs of each child.
According to Tomlinson (2009), DI as a philosophy of teaching is based on the premise that students learn best when their teachers accommodate the differences in their readiness levels, interests, and learning profiles. It sees the learning experience as social and collaborative. The responsibility of what happens in the classroom is first to teacher, but also to the learner (Subban, 2006). Additionally, DI presents an effective means to address learner’s variance which avoids the pitfalls of the one-size-fits-all curriculum. Stronge (2004) and Tomlinson (2004b) claimed that addressing student differences and interest enhance their motivation to learn and make them to remain committed and to stay positive as well.
Stravroula (2011) conducted a study in investigating the impact of DI in mixed ability classrooms and found out that the implementation of differentiation had made a big step in facing the negative effects of socio-economic factors on students’ achievement by managing diversity effectively, providing learning opportunities for all students. The positive change in students’ achievement had shown that differentiation can be considered as an effective teaching approach in mixed ability classrooms.
Furthermore, Servilio (cited by Robinson, 2014) studied the effectiveness of using DI to motivate students to read and found out that an average of 83.4% of the students’ grades improved in reading, 12.5% remained the same, and 41% of the grades decreased.
As educator, the teacher-researcher was motivated to conduct this action research on the effectiveness of DI in teaching English on Grade Four pupils for a week-long lesson. She also she wanted to know the effect of this method on the academic performance of the pupils from results of the diagnostic and achievement test.
II. Statement of the Problem
This study determined the effectiveness of conducting DI to Grade Four English class. Specifically, it answered the following.
1. What is the performance of the two groups of respondents in the pretest?
1.1. Control group
1.2. Experimental group
2. What is the performance of the two groups of respondents in the posttest?
1.1. Control group
1.2. Experimental group
3. Is there a significant difference between the pretest scores of the control and experimental group?
4. Is there a significant difference between the posttest scores of the control and experimental group?
5. Is there a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores of the control and experimental group?
The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
- There is no significant difference between the pretest result of the experimental and control group.
- There is no significant difference between the posttest result of the experimental and control group.
- There is no significant difference between the pretest and posttest result of the experimental and control group.
This action research utilized the experimental design since its main purpose was to determine the effectiveness of DI and its possible effect to the mean gain scores on achievement of pupils on a one-week lesson in Grade 4 English.
Two groups were taught the same lessons for one week. The control group was taught using the single teaching with similar activities approach while the experimental group was taught using DI with three sets of activities and three sets of evaluation and facilitation for the three groupings of pupils for the one-week duration. Two regular sections were included in the study out of the five Grade 4 sections that the school have.
Both groups were given the diagnostic test on Friday, September 25, 2015 to identify the classification of pupils whether they belong to the above average group, average group, and below average group. The achievement test was administered on Monday, October 5, 2015 the following week using parallel teacher-made tests. The number of pupils was again identified to know whether there was change in their classification. The results of the pretest and the posttest were compared to determine whether using DI is effective or not.
After seeking the approval from the principal, the teacher-researcher started the experiment for a week.
The scores of both the pretest and the posttest were taken and these data were coded, tallied, and were statistically treated using the mean, standard deviation, and t-test of significant difference.
The mean and the standard deviation were used to determine the level of performance of control and experimental groups and the classification of pupils, while the t-test was employed to determine the significant difference of the mean scores on pretest and posttest of both groups.
V. Results and Discussions
The following are the results and the analysis done from the data.
A. Performance of the Two Groups of Respondents in the Diagnostic Test (Pretest)
The result of the pretest of the two class groups is presented in Table 1.
Diagnostic scores reveal that the control group has a mean of 11.76 (Sd=4.06) while the experimental group reported a mean score of 12.07 (sd=3.56) which is a little higher.
Pretest Results of the Control and the Experimental
Groups Prior to the Experiment
The variance results of 4.06 and 3.56 are not that big which signify that both classes are heterogeneous; meaning the pupils were of differing level of intelligence. This is indeed a good baseline since the results suggest that the two sections included in the study are almost the same in the manner that the scores are scattered. This means that the pupil’s grouping are mixed as to their abilities.
Tomlinson (2009) claimed that pupil’s differences should be addressed and the two groups became an ideal grouping for which the experiment was conducted concerning DI.
B. Performance of the Two Groups of Respondents in the Achievement Test (Posttest)
Pretest Results of the Control and the Experimental
Groups Prior to the Experiment
The level of performance of the two groups in the posttest is presented in Table 2.
The experimental group of pupils who were exposed to DI obtains a mean score of 16.45 (Sd=2.34) while the control group who were taught using the traditional method obtain a mean score of 13.82 (Sd=3.53).
The result showed that the posttest scores of the experimental groups taught with DI is remarkably better as compared to those which were taught the traditional approach. Looking at the standard deviation scores, it signifies that the variance of the experimental group was smaller than that of the control group which suggest that the pupils’ intellectual ability were not scattered unlike in the pretest result.
The finding is supported by Stravroula’s (2011) study on DI where was able to prove that DI is effective as it positively effects the diverse pupils characteristics. Stronge’s (2004) contention that DI can enhance motivation and performance also supports the result.
C. Classification of Pupils in the Control and Experimental Group Based on the Pretest and Posttest Scores Results
Classification of Pupils Before and After the Differentiated Instruction
Table 3 presents the grouping of the pupils both in the control and in the experimental group As per classification of students based on the mean and standard deviation results, a majority of the pupils were on the average group for the control and experimental group prior to the treatment. However, after the experiment, there was a big increase in number of pupils for the average group for the control group and a larger number now belongs to the above average group. There were no pupils reported to be in the below average group for both the control and the experimental group.
Data suggest that both approach in teaching increased the achievement but remarkable increase was noted in the group taught with DI.
D. Classification of Pupils in the Control and Experimental Group Based on the Pretest and Posttest Scores Results
Classification of Pupils Before and After the Differentiated Instruction
Table 3.1 shows that as per classification of students based on the mean and standard deviation results, a majority of the pupils were on the average group for the control and experimental group prior to the treatment of using DI to the experimental group.
It could be noticed that the percentages of classification are not far from each other. The idea presented by Tomlinson (2009) that differences of pupils should be addressed by the teacher in the classroom is good and according to Robinson, et.al, the teachers are the best facilitators of learning for pupils of diverse background and abilities.
Classification of Pupils After the Differentiated Instruction
Table 3.2 presents that after the experiment, there was a big increase in number of pupils for the average group for the control group and a larger number now belongs to the above average group. There were no pupils reported to be in the below average group for both the control and the experimental group.
Data suggest that both approach in teaching increased the achievement but remarkable increase was noted in the group taught with DI. This improvement in the classification or grouping of pupils in both groups assumes the principle that both groups who are taught by the same teacher with the same lesson could normally have a change in aptitude especially if the teacher has addressed the differences as averred by Anderson (2007). However, the notable changes in the experimental group is surely brought about by the DI exposed to them as supported by Stravroula (2011), Subban (2006), and Stronge (2004). With the DI, the teacher’s approach to the teaching and the activities may have affected very well the acquisition of the learning competencies as was mentioned by Wilson (2009). Specifically however, in English, the contentions of Sevillano (cited by Robinson et al, 2014) directly supports the result.
E. Results of Significant Difference Between the Pretest Scores of the Control and Experimental Group
Significant Difference Between the Pretest Scores of the Control Group and Experimental Group
Table 4 presents the significant difference in the pretest scores of the two groups.
The computed t-ratio of 0.8109 is lesser than the tabular of 1.9845 at 98 degrees of freedom. Hence the hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. There is no significant difference in the pretest scores of the class groups.
This result is good since the baseline data prior to the use of DI suggest that the pupils have similar intellectual abilities which will be very crucial for trying out the experiment in the teaching approach. The data suggest that the groups are very ideal for the experiment since they possess similarities prior to the experiment.
F. Significant Difference Between the Posttest Scores of the Control and Experimental Group
Table 5 presents the significant difference of the posttest scores between the control and the experimental group.
Results of Post-test the Control and Experimental Group
From the data, it is very clear that the difference in scores in the achievement favor the experimental group which was taught using DI. Hence, it is safe to say that DI is effective based on the data generated.
G. Significant Difference Between the Pre-test and Post-test Scores of the Control and Experimental Group
Significant Difference Between the Pretest and Posttest Scores of the Control and Experimental Group
Table 6 presents the comparison of the pretest and post test scores of the control and the control groups.
Clearly, for the control, there is no significant difference as signified by the computed t coefficient of 0.09 which is lesser than the tabular value of 1.9850 using 96 degrees of freedom. However, for the control group, it is very obvious that the calculated t-ratio of 1.02 is greater than the tabular value of 1.9840. Hence, the hypothesis of no significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores for the control group is accepted but is rejected for the experimental group.
The results are very significant since the group exposed without DI did not report difference in score unlike in the group taught using DI which showed significant difference. This then makes it safe to conclude that DI is effective in teaching English.
The following are the findings of this action research.
- The mean scores of both control (11.76, Sd=4.06) and the experimental (12.07, Sd=3.56) groups do not significantly differ based on the t-coefficient result of 0.8109 which is lesser than the tabular of 1.9845 at 98 degrees of freedom.
- The mean scores of the control (16.45, Sd=2.34) and the experimental (13.82, Sd=3.53) significantly differ which favor the use of DI from the t-ratio of 3.423 is greater than the tabular value of 1.9845 at 0.05 level of significance using 98 degrees of freedom.
- During the pretest, majority of the pupils are average (control group, 35 or 71.43% and 37 or 72.55%). After the treatment, however, majority of the pupils in the control group became average (34 or 69.39%) and above average (35 or 68.63%).
- There is no significant difference between the control group’s pretest and posttest scores based on the computed t coefficient of 0.09 which is lesser than the tabular value of 1.9850 using 96 degrees of freedom but significant difference exists for the experimental group as signified by the calculated t-ratio of 1.02 is greater than the tabular value of 1.9840 using 98 degrees of freedom.
Based on the findings, the following are the conclusions.
- The pretest scores of the control and the experimental group do not differ significantly.
- The posttest scores of the groups significantly differ resulting to higher scores for the experimental group.
- No significant difference exists in the pretest and posttest scores of the control group, but significant difference is noted for the experimental group.
- There is an improvement in the groupings of pupils both in the control and experimental group but significant improvement was shown for the pupils taught using DI.
- Use of DI is effective considering the higher scores of the experimental group compared to the control group.
Based on the above findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are suggested.
- DI should be used in teaching pupils in English especially in heterogeneous classes because it improved their classroom performance.
- Teachers should be given in-service trainings on DI for them to gain more knowledge and clear understanding of the approach.
- Although tedious on the part of the teachers, they should be encouraged to prepare and use DI to motivate pupils to participate in class discussions.
- This action research should be continued.
Anderson, K. M. (2007). Tips for teaching: Differentiating instruction to include all students. Preventing School Failure, 51(3), pp. 49-54. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database. (Accession No. 24944365)
Butt, M. & Kausar, S. (2010). A comparative study using differentiated instructions of public and private school teachers. Malaysian Journal of Distance Education, 12(1), pp. 105-124. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database. (Accession No. 78221508)
K to 12 Curriculum Guide, www.deped.gov.ph
Robinson, L., Maldonado, N., & Whaley, J. (2014). Perceptions about implementation of differentiated instruction: Retrieved October 2015 http://mrseberhartsepicclass.weebly.com/
Stravroula, V. A, Leonidas., & Mary, K. (2011). investigating the impact of differentiated instruction in mixed ability classrooms: It’s impact on the quality and equity dimensions of education effectiveness. Retrieved October 2015 http://www.icsei.net/icsei2011/Full%20Papers/0155.pdf
Stronge, J. (2004). Teacher effectiveness and student achievement : What do good teachers do? Paper presented at the American Association of School Administrators Annual Conference and Exposition, San Francisco, California.
Subban, P.(2006). Differentiated Instruction: A research basis. International Education Journal, 7(7), pp. 935-947.
Tomlinson, C. A., (2009) Intersections between differentiation and literacy instruction: Shared principles worth sharing. The NERA Journal, 45(1), 28-33.Retrieved from Education Research Complete database. (Accession No. 44765141)
Tomlinson, C. A. (2004a). Differentiation in diverse settings. School Administrator, 61(7), 28-33
Wilson, S. (2009). Differentiated instruction: How are design, essential questions in learning, assessment, and instruction part of it? New England Reading Association Journal, 44(2), pp. 68-75. Retrieved from Education Source database. (Accession No. 508028374)
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